Architecture


Career Objectives

Present a life with aesthetic and functional style.

Career Outline

Architecture has as field both aesthetics and functionality of a habitat (house, library, office buildings, hospitals, etc.) as well as of an urban area.

It addresses the overall design of structure, and sizing, location and the shape of the volumes of its interior spaces.

The architect studies spaces which satisfy the functions of human being and at the same time are the expression of people’s feeling who inhabit them, the expression of their way of being, of their way of viewing life, of their fantasy; dignifying and improving their quality of life.

People live in different ways according to the cultural features, the time, the place and, in light of that, the architect must adapt to each time and place, providing with his creativity to the use of spaces and suggesting ways for their functioning and aesthetic expression.

The architect acts as a psychologist who interprets the needs of a group or an individual person, perceiving his requirements of functioning and his form of expression, in order to carry out the work.

In the urban planning, he plans and projects spatial planning intended to parks, schools, institutions, airports, roads and commercial, industrial and residential areas, he projects avenues, neighborhoods, public transport and urban routes along with engineers, geographers and sociologists; always contributing and attending functionality and aesthetics aspects, considering economic, social, physical aspects and other factors which influence the development of the zone.

The architects must make his works represent a contemporary language.

In the landscape sense, he plans and provides the works of aesthetic planning of areas intended to parks and other recreation areas, pathways, etc.

Another part to be addressed is the management in Architecture, which is internalized from the scope of Construction Law and Municipal Management. This is related to the demands stated for the approval of a project in municipal departments of works.

But, to structure architecture projects, it both art and science are required; Art because the architects seeks beauty in the expression of his work through shape, color, light, etc, and science because this shape must have the necessary construction conditions and stability to be able to be realized.

It is intended that the professional knows how to select in his architecture project by the most suitable type of structure.

Tasks carried out by the Architect

Current Architecture combines pencils, rulers, boards and instruments with the newest design technologies and computer graphics; with this you obtain the plan, model and the structural option.

The computing systems provide many facilities because you can change planes and make works quickly, but there is always the task in the drawing board.

He works with the disciplines of representation, of composition (*syntax, visual structures, figure, background and symmetry), two and three-dimensional phenomena, basic structures and the materials to be used.

*Syntax: Structuring of the elements to conform the composition.

He works with details, environments, decorating styles, take advantage of simple materials. Practical solutions to functionality problems.

When the architect is entrusted with a work, he should consult with his client to establish the type of building style he wants, advising him on the cost and time that will be invested in it.

He must keep in mind the current regulations and the architectural styles of the place and the time.

He *designs, *projects and makes drawings or models to show the appearance the house or building will have, once finished. In turn, he must prepare detailed plans and specifications for the use of construction managers.

Design: devise, draw

Project: create the plan and the resources to execute.

He prepares detailed plans for the construction, renovation or reconstruction of buildings.

He is in continuous monitoring of the work in general and the place in which it will be located, to ensure it is constructed according to the contract specifications, checking materials, labor costs, completion time, observance of the respective standards and regulations.

He maintains technical contacts and consults with other respective specialists (for instance, to the Calculation Engineer, in charge of the determination and calculation of resistance of coarse structure)

He performs interior architecture organizing the internal space of a construction and comfort planning the lighting conditions, temperature, sound, colors, ventilation, terminations, coating and furniture.

He restores buildings of historical value and recycles old buildings, planning the reform in accordance with the structure these already have.

-Lighting project of large areas such as shopping centers, industries and building’s facade.

-In Visual Communication, conceiving the Visual Identity of an enterprise.

-In Industrial Design, creating furniture, utensils, etc.

-In Research, developing new building techniques.

-In tasks corresponding to Urbanization, he organizes the data collection about the economic social, physical aspects and other factors that influence the development of the zone.

He analyzes the data in order to determine the nature, extent, rate of growth and development of this one and with this information, he plans his layout.

He prepares plans for the future land-use zoning of the area, including the future distribution of industrial areas, commercial, residential and the location of recreational facilities, educational and other community services.

He also can plan and coordinate the rural land-use zoning.

Some architects are devoted to pure architecture, that is, to work the form and aesthetics, others to consulting of construction and other to the administrative part. But all of these aspects are combines in the completion of a work.


Estimated time of College years

Around 5 years

Study Plan

He has sufficient training both in the area of graphic expression and in mathematics and applied physics, understanding these ones as tools which allow him to express, represent and interpret the space, volume and shape graphically.

General Education Courses

-Composition, Culture’s History, English, Introduction to Computer Science.

Basic Training Courses

Introduction to Design, *Mathematics for Design, *Descriptive Geometry, *Applied Physics, Drawing Workshop I, II

Design Theory

Professional Training Courses

Architectural Composition I, II

Research Methodology

Visualization and Multimedia

Architectural Drawing

*Construction Materials

Architecture Workshop I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII

Architecture and City History I, II, III, IV

*Material Resistance

*Passive Design

*Computer-aided Design

*Structural Systems I, II, III

*Construction Methods

*Installation System in Building

Architecture Theories

Construction Workshop I, II

Seminar of Theory and History

Urbanism

Building Technology

NOTE:

In Spain, the requirements are different from the ones presented here, since so much emphasis is placed on the construction part as on the architectural design, so that mathematics and physics have a higher level of exigency.

Complementary Training Courses

-Economics, Construction Management, Costs and Budgets, *Project Operation, Architectural and Urban Project Evaluation.

Specialties

-Urbanism, Monument Restoration, Space Design, Lighting, Landscaping.


Occupational Field

You can work both in construction companies and independently doing projects on demand.

His field can be classified in the following areas:

Housing, Building and Urban Area Construction

He performs works of restoration and conservation of historic and cultural monuments.

Building Renovation

Structure Analysis

Calculation and facility design

Urbanism and building’s urban environment

Interior and Object Design

Construction Techniques

Landscaping

Environment

Legal Architecture

Real Estate Appraisal and Surveys

Interpretation of deeds or other documents related to the building.

Teaching

Research


Candidate Personality

-Frequent observation of the aesthetic.

-Creative imagination of shapes, color, texture, etc.

-Vision of the three-dimensional space and faculty to express graphically.

-Strong aesthetic sense.

-Manual dexterity

-Ability to assess volumes and spaces and the issue of proportions.

-He has to like creating, being a bit fanciful, being creative.

-He has to like drawing, nature and appreciating a city.

-Interest in the natural and artificial refurbishment, which the refurbishment of a house, comfort, orientation, lighting, etc.

-Sense of observation of everyday life, for the direct experience of people with the environment, to underscore the functional needs of people.

-Sense of perfection and care with manual work.

-Artistic and Aesthetic Sensitivity

-Sensitivity is that you perceive, capture, they are aspects that are not unnoticed for you; they are not indifferent for you.

-Innate Interest in aesthetics and technique.

-Interest in understanding the dreams and realities of society, know and interpret their problem. -To capture the identity of the population and value their own.

-A strong facility to the personal artistic expression. "It is very nice to see a work that is your product growing."

Glossary of Terms

*Computer-aided Design: Computational methods for drawing and design using various types of three-dimensional representations.

*Physics focused on Design:

Basic contents of General Physics relevant for an architect, in terms of knowledge and understanding of physical phenomena closely linked to construction technology. It is focused fundamentally towards mechanical physics corresponding to laws of force, mass and motion (Newton’s Laws of Motion) and Kinematics which corresponds to the study of motion.

*Geometry: Science which study forms in their three dimensions, line, surface and volume.

*Analytic Geometry: It studies the representation of geometry through algebraic equations. -For example, the algebraic equation for a Line, Circle, Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola, etc; as well as the graphic representation of Functions (or mathematical expressions).

-Applications of these topics in design, in order to describe forms and spatial relations in geometric terms as well as finding their corresponding mathematical expressions or models which represent them.

*Descriptive Geometry: It studies the bodies in space through their projections on certain plans, for their application in the representation of volumes in two or three dimensions. -The development of the abilities of perception, volumetric/spatial analysis.

-Development methods applied in volume construction (in drawing and model). -The determination of shades which produce volumes through natural and artificial light. Practice of the fundamental principles of perspective.

*Mathematics focused on Design: Ratio and Proportions. Foundations of Algebra.

*Construction Materials: To know the nature, formation and conversion process of materials used in construction.

Know and understand the properties and physical, mechanical, hygrometric (determination of humidity) and thermal characteristics of materials.

Recognize the importance of construction materials, as well as the construction elements that are elaborated with them, in order to implement them in the process of architectural design.

Assess the physical behavior of the varied materials in terms of their utilization.

*Project Operation: Building economics, cost control and assurance of the quality of the design project.

-Documentation of a proposed design.

-Legal context in which architects develop their practice and of the laws and regulations relative to the professional register.

*Construction Methods: Understanding of the different construction systems. The integral parts of a building: substructure, structure and superstructure. -The construction elements and their structural behavior.

-Preliminary construction methods.

- Procedures of construction of the constructive elements.

*Material Resistance: Rigid bodies: equivalent force systems. -Equilibrium of rigid bodies. -Centers of Gravity. -Moment of Inertia. -Internal force and stresses. -Elasticity and Deformation.

-Load types in beams. -Shear and moment diagrams in beams. –Bending and shear strength in beams. -Beams Deflection.

*Installation System in Buildings: Knowledge and understanding of installation systems in buildings, materials and construction methods.

-Space and structure requirements for its operations. –General criteria of distribution. – Hydraulic and Sanitary installations, thermal conditioning, electrical and lightning installations.

*Structural Systems: It studies the types of structures, their characteristics, behavior, advantages and disadvantages of each one. In addition, that it has the knowledge that allows its adequacy to the particular project.

*Structural Systems I: The behavior of structural systems from the geometry which defines them, the efforts to which they are subjected and the materials and their constructive processes.

-Architectural structural elements and structural analysis principles.

-Awareness of the application of contemporary materials and technology.

*Structural Systems II: Geometry, efforts and materials in concrete structures. -Analysis of constructed examples, and structural behavior as well as of physical models.

-Bending and shearing in reinforced concrete elements.

-Structural dimensioning criteria.

-Analysis of reinforced concrete construction elements: Columns, beams, plates, foundations, etc.

-Basic criteria of reinforcing bars.

-Other implementations of reinforced concrete in architecture.

*Structural Systems III: Geometry and efforts in steel, wood and other materials structures. -Analysis and design of steel structures with base in bents. –Analysis and design of steel beams and columns.

-Analysis and design of Wood structures and other materials.

-Experimentation through practice in laboratory and physical models.

*Passive Design: Climatic comfort in the architectural design of the building and the human thermal comfort, through the knowledge of use and handling of the weather elements, of orientation, ventilation, in pursuit of solving environmental degradation problems, energy savings and climate control.

*Trigonometry: Component of mathematics which aims to calculate the elements of a triangle, relating its sides with its angles, both triangles in planes and triangles in three dimensions.

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