Technical Drawing


Career Objectives

Contribute to the construction and technology field through the display and graphic interpretation of a project, which serves as guide in its construction and *implementation phase.


Professional Profile

Professional who provides accurate information of a three-dimensional body through its representation in a flat surface, with its shapes, dimensions, characteristics and proportions to be able to work with its complete and precise information.

He performs in areas of architecture, civil works, mechanics, electricity, electronics and urban.


Specific tasks or activities carried out in the profession

He develops and handles any type of graphic projects.

He participates from the early stages of development of a design project making *sketches, *schemes and *diagrams of possible solutions to it; identifying its main risk factors or uncertainty factors, developing proposals.

Once finished, he formalizes the design by presenting the results in definite *technical drawings.

In the making of plans/blueprints:

He uses a graphic language of lines and symbols to make representations of one or several views of an object and thus to define its form and characteristics completely.

He applies pre-established standards (*ISO standards) to describe shapes, dimensions and characteristics of what he is going to represent, such as rules for presenting lines, *formats, *signage, etc. and ways to present pieces or pieces’ parts from different views, *cutaway drawings, etc.

He makes the representation of the *scale drawing.

He obtains measures of lengths, heights, widths, etc.

He makes use of measuring instruments (caliper, micrometer, etc.)

He uses geometric concepts for calculating areas, angles and volumes.

He makes use of specialized technological and computer resources.

He obtains 3D renderings of the objects.

He develops Structural plans which contemplate the rough structural work of a construction: their foundations (base), columns, beams, *slabs, etc.

He develops topographic plans which report on the location and the landform where the work will be built.

He develops architectural plans which allow displaying how the construction will be inside and outside, through: *Floor Plans, *Façade Planes, *Cutting Planes, *Perspective Planes; in order to indicate how a building or dwelling will be built, as well as which will be its appearance once finished.

He develops *health facilities plans, gas networks installations, drinking water supply systems and *pipelines; according to the regulations established by the Superintendency of Electricity and Fuels, regulation of Household Installations of Drinking Water and Sewerage.

He carries out the construction supervision interpreting the plans and technical specifications, so that they are met.

The technical specifications complement the information of the plans alluding to the types of materials to be used and some considerations to be taken in the construction process, to give the project an appropriate completion.

For instance: “the frames will be made of anodized aluminum and will have a silicone sealing all around them”, “External and internal doors are considered based on a stretcher frame and chipboard, type hardboard, 45 mm thickness according to the dimensions of the plane.

The external door frames will be made of fir wood and the interior doors made of pinewood, 1 ½ pieces”.

He performs the *material take off quantification of materials necessary for the construction work and develops a budget.

He interprets plans to find drinking water supply systems, gas networks or *pipelines, in order to carry out maintenance and repair work.

He performs *building surveying for restoration.

He carries out mechanical drawing, making representation of all sorts of machinery and vehicles such as engines, industrial machinery, cranes, motorcycles, trucks, airplanes, etc.

In this he performs:

General Assembly Drawing, which represents the machinery, together with all its parts.

Drawing of Parts, which represents separately each one of the parts of the machinery. -Useful for manufacturing.

Installation Drawing, which depicts how each one of the pieces are assembled to form the body of the machinery. –Useful for its assembly or repair and its later assembly.

He carries out electrical drawing, making the graphic representation of electric installations of industries, offices or dwellings or any construction which requires power supply.

He uses the symbology corresponding to circuits, switches, control panels, AC power plugs and sockets, etc.

He performs Electronic Schematics, representing the circuits that make up computers, amplifiers, transmitters, clocks, televisions, radios and others.

He develops Urban Planning, representing the organization of a city, with the location of its urban centers, industrial zones, streets, avenues, gardens, highways, recreational areas, among others.

He carries out procedures for building permission.

He carries out *expert’s reports.


Occupational Field

-Construction Companies

-Engineering projects companies

-Industries

-Mining companies

-Electricity companies, generating or distributing companies.

-Metallurgical companies

-Steel companies

Institutions linked to civil works, such as:

-Ministries

-Regional Departments

-Municipalities

-Small and medium enterprises (SME)

-Counseling centers for companies

- Independently advising or assisting companies that require a specialist in the preparation of plans.

-As an independent entrepreneur to develop small projects of floors, industrial facilities and services.


Estimated time of College years

3 years


Main courses considered in the syllabus

Basic Training Courses

*Mathematics (2 semesters)

*Physics

*Plane Geometry

*Descriptive Geometry (2 semesters)

Professional Training Courses

-*Technical Drawing (2 semesters)

-Mechanical Drawing (2 semesters)

-Architectural Drawing (3 semesters)

-*Computer-aided Design

-Structures (2 semesters)

-*Construction Materials

-*Metrology

-*Digital Models

-*Construction (2 semesters)

-Electrical and Gas Installations

-*Sanitary Facilities

-*Material Take Off and Budget

-*Foundations of Topography

Specialties

Architectural Drawing

Industrial Drawing


Vocation, Skills and Interests required in the candidate to this career 


Interests

-Natural inclination in paying attention to the shape of objects.

-Taste for geometric drawing and schemes.

-Interest in manual work.

-Great attention to the details.

-Motivation for geometry.

-Inclined to carry out specific tasks.

-Interest in projects aimed at building, installing, assembling or operating.

-Motivation in the use of precision tools.

-Valuation for accuracy of measurements.


Skills

-Skill for geometry drawing

-Fine motor skill

-Observation capacity

-Visual acuity

-Perception and spatial location, for instance: able to visualize things from all angles.

-Facility for the estimation of measures.

-Adaptable to carry out a *systematic work.

-Neat

-Punctilious

-Tidy


Vocation

Contribute to the production of goods and services, dreaming always about making things better in order to meet the needs of the community.

Or any specific dream or longing which feels involved or oriented towards this direction.


Candidate Personality

-Practical and functional personality

-Facility to treat people with different preparation, criteria and nature

-Availability to work in teams.


 Work Scope

He works at drawing workshops and computer labs with programs latest in design.

He works along with architects, engineers, builders and surveyors.


Related Careers

-Construction Technician, Topography Technician, Topographic Engineering, Geodesy, Cartography.


*Glossary of Terms

*Dimensioning: Dimension: Show in the drawing/plan the dimensions of the piece.

*Construction (Course):

Construction Methods

-Different constructions methods. The constituent parts of a building:*substructure, *structure and *superstructure.

-The *construction elements and their structural behavior.

-Preliminary construction methods.

-Procedures for building the *construction elements.

Installation Systems in Buildings

-Materials and construction methods.

-Structural and space requirements for its operation.

-General criteria of distribution.

-Hydraulic and sanitary installations, heating, electrical and lighting installations.

*Cutaway Drawing: It is as if the construction or piece had been cut by a plan. Removing the upper part, everything that is below that cut is visible. This is to represent the internal components of a piece that are not possible to see from its exterior area.

*Sketch: Drawing that outlines an image or an idea.

*Sketching: making of a sketch.

*Material Take Off:

It determines the capacity or volume of a body knowing its dimensions and applying the corresponding geometric formulas.

For instance: The amount of soil to be removed in an excavation, or determine the required cubic meters of wood, or rebar to be used.

*Scale Drawing: Drawing which shows an object which size has been reduced or increased in relation to reality. This relation is called “scale”. -For example a “1.10” scale, means that a dimension “1” of the drawing will have a dimension “10” in reality.

*Computer-aided Design (Course): Computer methods for drawing and design using different types of three-dimensional representations.

*Technical Drawing (Course): *ISO Standards; *Dimensioning; *Sketching; Sections and *Cutaway drawing; Representation of objects by their views; Representation of objects in *perspective.

*Pipeline: Pipe that performs the function of transporting water or other fluids to be removed from the place.

*Construction Elements: They are each one of the functional or decorative parts of a construction. Such as walls, stairs, balconies, pillars, beams, windows, doors, etc.

*Structures (Course): -Types of structures, their properties, behavior, advantages and disadvantages of each one of them.

-Behavior of the structural system from the geometry that defines them and the stress to which they are subjected.

-Analysis of reinforced concrete construction elements: columns, beams, slabs, foundations, etc.

-Geometry and stress in steel, wood and other materials.

-Analysis and design of steel structures based on reinforcements.

-Analysis and design of steel beams and columns.

-Analysis and design of wood structures and other materials.

Among others.

*Facade: Exterior views of a building: front, back and sides.

*Physics (Course): It is focused fundamentally towards classical mechanics corresponding to the laws of force, mass and motion (Newton’s Laws), and Kinematics which corresponds to the study of motion.

*Format: The type of sheet of paper on which a drawing is made, which shape and dimensions in mm is normalized.

*Foundations of Topography (Course): Interpretation of a land surface from a geometric point of view, determining the position of elements and phenomena in it, as well as the relations between them.

-Use of tools and instruments for the application of several measurements, the subsequent processing of information and its graphic representation.

*Descriptive Geometry (Course):

It studies the bodies in space through their projections on certain plans, for their application in the representation of volumes in two or three dimensions. -The development of the abilities of perception, volumetric/spatial analysis.

-Development methods applied in volume construction (in drawing and model). -Practice of the fundamental principles of *perspective.

*Plane Geometry (Course): Study of plane geometric shapes such as: polygons, triangles, quadrilaterals, circle; their area and perimeter. Trigonometry.

*Implementation: *Implement: Start up a project.

*Sanitary Facilities (Course):

-Location of sanitary appliances such as shower, sink, toilet, etc. -Including the location of internal or external piping.

*Building Surveying: It is the graphic representation of a building already built.

*Slab: it is a flat concrete structure resting on beams or walls on all four sides; or used as a surface to support a building.

*Digital Models (Course): A three-dimensional computer model of a work, which allows obtaining different *perspectives and a virtual tour of its exteriors and interiors. It is used during the stage of budget formulation, organization of the work, construction and sale.

*Mathematics (Course): Ratios and Proportions. Foundations of Algebra.

*Construction Materials (Course):

-Properties and physical, mechanical, hygrometric (measurement of humidity) and thermal characteristics of materials.

-Nature, formation and elaboration process of materials used in construction.

-Construction materials and *construction elements used to elaborate them.

-Physical behavior of the varied materials according to their use.

-Materials and contemporary technology.

*Metrology (Course): Study of the theoretical and practical aspects of the measurement accuracy levels.

*ISO Standards: International standards in charge of marking the precise guidelines for the representation of an object in a plane.

*Expert’s report: Work or study developed by a specialist or a subject matter expert, in order to corroborate certain circumstances or facts.

*Perspective: Object seen aloof from a determined location.

*Plane: Graphic representation of an object or practical idea in a universal language of signs.

*Cutting Planes: They are planes which represent a section of a construction cut vertically. Its purpose is to show those aspects that are not sufficiently explained or understood through facades and floors.

*Facade Planes: They are planes which provide information of four views of a construction: Front, Back and Sides (right or left). Its purpose is to provide the height of doors, windows, floors and ceilings.

*Perspective Planes: They are planes that make a simulation of the finished construction in three dimensions through the recreation of the depth and relative position of its components. These planes are used for promotion and sale.

*Floor Plans: It is the representation of a view from above of any object (a building, furniture, piece or any object) as if it were flying over; or views of a horizontal *cut at different heights or levels. This allows observing construction details of the rough work or interior partitions.

*Floor: View from above of an object.

*Signage: Signage Indicates the correct way to list or name elements within the drawing, indicate measures, specifications and clarifications.

*Systematic: Where a system of work is arranged.

*Substructure: Foundations of a construction.

*Superstructure: It is the structural part which is supported in columns or other support elements, such as ceilings, partition walls, etc.

*Trigonometry: Part of mathematics that aims to calculate the elements of a triangle, relating their sides with their angles.

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