Cartography


Career Objectives

Quantify and record spatial information of the country’s potential and resources of the in order to decide its best development in accordance with the environment protection.


Professional Profile

Professional who represents the location, distribution and relation between the physical, human, economic and cultural elements of the geographic space graphically.

This information is relevant to juggle an optimal economic development and a better quality of life, distinguishing the environmental impacts resulting from this interaction.

He collaborates in the planning of both the State and the business activity for the exploitation, exploration, transport and use of natural resources, to develop, distribute and administer services and to evaluate statistical analyses which help in the planning.


Specific tasks or activities carried out in the profession

His works include the acquisition of information, its interpretation, processing and the cartographic layout.

He obtains geographic information using advanced technologies, such as:

-Global Positioning System (GPS) which consist of a satellite signal receiver which calculates the exact location of an object on the surface of the earth.

Remote Sensing which is the method that allows obtaining information regarding an object, surface or phenomenon of a geographic area from mobile platforms, such as a plane, spacecraft or artificial satellites.

These platforms contain sensors that capture radiation reflected by the lens, forming an image that must be interpreted by the cartographer in order to extract the information.

*Photogrammetry which is a procedure for obtaining plans of large tracts of land by means of photographs.

He performs data interpretation using:

-Techniques of interpretation of satellite imagery in order to generate thematic documents (relative to the topic of any subject).

Interpretation of aerial photographs and *topographic data.

He contributes with Information and Analysis to the Geographic Information Systems.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are the computational support which allows that all the data of the territory, such as: digital terrain models, soil maps, climate data, population, etc., to be integrated into a *projection and common scale, allowing the analysis of the areas of interest and mapping.

He incorporates information to*Spatial databases.

He contributes with Spatial Analysis.

He creates Representation Models which are incorporated to the Geographic Information Systems.

A model is an analysis program of an area, whether urban or rural, which allows reproducing the conditions of a certain phenomenon in it and make decisions to perform amendments in its landscape.

He answers questions, such as:

What’s in that place?

At what point is a certain condition given?

What has changed for some time in that area?

Use given to the soil

At what altitude is it?

What kind of area surrounds it?

The streets that cross it

The customers of the area

Etc.

He performs Cartographic Design

He performs *Topographical Mapping and *Thematic Cartography.

For that, he uses the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which contain automatic cartography that is software for the design of cartographic maps using *projections to reproduce the Earth (approximately spherical) in a flat surface, in which contours, surfaces and angles are represented.

This allows him drawing maps on different scales, with different *types of projections and with different colors.

He gives a direct and accurate view of the geographic distribution of different phenomena such as, terrestrial and marine regions, morphology, mounts, rivers, lakes, coasts, human conglomerations (human groups), their production, commerce, etc., providing data such as their latitude, longitude and height.

He integrates interdisciplinary groups by actively participating from the spatial perspective in projects such as:

Urban Planning

*Cadastral *Management

Spatial Planning

Environment

Transportation Planning

Maintenance and Public Network Management

Studies about urban crime

Market Research

Etc.

He advises in the technical, aesthetic and economic aspects of the map production.

He performs works of updating, *cataloguing and preservation of basic, thematic and special Cartography.

He develops and implements new approaches and methods of processing, treatment and analysis of land information.

He participates in arbitrations and *surveys in the areas of his specialty.

He conducts training programs for professionals related to Earth science.

He prepares presentations and reports of an academic or scientific nature.

He can practice the profession in the academic scope through teaching and research both in public and private higher education institutions.


Occupational Field

-Ministries of Urban Development

-State agencies responsible for the development of national land and maritime cartography.

-Municipalities

-Armed Forces

-Mining companies

-Construction companies specializing in viability and earthworks or major engineering works.

-Forest Companies

-Agricultural Companies

-Fishing Companies

-Agribusiness Companies

-Transport and Communications Companies

-Research Centers

-International Bodies

-NGOs

-Universities

-Computer Companies

-Consulting firms of environmental studies.


Estimated time of College years

5 years


Main courses considered in the syllabus.

Basic Training Courses

*Mathematics (4 semesters)

*Statistics (2 semesters)

*Perception

*Color Theory and Application

Professional Training Courses

*Reproduction Techniques

*Photogrammetry (3 semesters)

*Photo-Interpretation

*General Cartography

*Visual Communication

*Topography (2 semesters)

*Remote Sensing

*Geographic Information Systems (2 semesters)

*Mathematical Cartography (3 semesters)

*Systematic Cartography (2 semesters)

*Urban Cartography

*Rural Landscape Cartography/Mapping

*Spherical Astronomy

*Digital Image Processing

*Geodesy

*Physical Geography

*Human Geography

*Relational Databases (2 semesters)

*Thematic Cartography

*Thematic Map Symbols

Globalization and Demographic Processes

*Human Settlements and Economical Activities

*Representation Models

*Environmental Impact Assessment

*Spatial Analysis and *management

*Methodology of Scientific Research

Complementary Training Courses

English

*Economics

*Project Evaluation

General Administration

Specialties

*Automated Cartography, *Remote Sensing, *Geographic Information Systems.


Vocation, Skills and Interests required in the candidate to this career


Interests

-Interest in natural sciences.

-Appreciation for the Environment.

-Taste for quantifying, mapping, recording.

-Interest in Geometry and taste for making graphs.

-Estimation for Science and Technology.

-Motivation for the use of technology, manipulation of instruments.


Skills

Analysis and Synthesis capacity

Aptitude for meticulous drawing

Spatial Location

Aesthetic Sense

Manual Dexterity

Compatible health for field work


Vocation

Preserve the Natural Environment through the organization of its information and rational planning of its use.

Or any specific dream or longing which feels involved or oriented towards this direction.


Candidate Personality

Methodical

Prepared

Organized

Punctilious


Work Scope 

-Both urban and field work.


Related Careers

*Geophysics, *Geodesy, Technician on Cartography, Geography, *Geomatics, *Topography, *Surveying Engineering.


*Glossary of Terms

*Surveying: Art of measuring lands.

*Spatial Analysis and Management: Territorial Analysis, Spatial Planning and Territorial Management.

-Application to a specific case study.

*Human Settlements and Economical Activities: Link between the natural landscape and the one modified by man.

-Human settlements and the response of the natural environment to such occupancy. –Analysis of the natural resources and the economical activities that occur in that space.

*Spherical Astronomy: Spherical Astronomy or Positional Astronomy is science derived from Astronomy which its main objective is the study of the movement of stars to determine the geographic coordinates of Earth.

Knowing the geographic coordinates, we can locate the point where we are in the terrestrial surface.

The course contemplates astronomical foundations and the relations between the systems of geographical and astronomical reference.

*Spatial Database: It is a collection of data with reference to its spatial location, which acts as a model of reality.

*Relational Databases: A relational database is a set of data that are related to each other (such as information of a person: Name, age, date of birth. These are data which relate to each other because they all belong to the same person).

These data are stored in such a way to maintain these relations between them.

The course studies the Basics of Relational Databases, their design and implementation.

*Automated Cartography: It is the design of cartographic maps using software.

*Rural Landscape Cartography: Applying and adapting methodologies to the spatial study of problems in rural areas, generating *cartographic models.

*General Cartography: The course focuses on the history of Cartography.

-Shapes of the planet and representation methods. -Processes to build a cartographic product.

*Mathematical Cartography: Mathematical foundations and operations needed for the construction and use of a map, especially the *map projections.

*Systematic Cartography: Study of both traditional techniques and automated methods used in the cartographic representation of the geographic space and the handling of map information.

*Thematic Cartography: Cartography related to the topic of any subject, such as land use, geomorphology, drainage (sewers), communication routes, hydrography, phytogeography, sales figures, incomes, population census, real estate, disease incidence, etc.

The course studies the processes in the elaboration of a thematic map and the conceptual bases of other disciplines which are related to the information.

*Topographical Mapping: Maps in which the earth surface is represented in a detailed and precise way.

*Urban Cartography: Concepts, criteria and methodologies of cartographic works related to urban space problems.

*Cataloguing: Relative to set up catalogs, where information is represented in synthesized and condensed form.

*Cadastral: *Cadastre: It is a territorial inventory materialized in the form of lots (sites) to which is associated administrative / legal and physical information such as measurement, subdivision and location.

For instance: State property registry.

*Visual Communication: Study of criteria and techniques of symbolization and thematic representation, such as: color models, strategies for map composition, typography (style, shape, size and color of type), type of labeling (label indicating the content), among others.

*Economics: Science which subject of study is the social organization of the economical activity.

*Statistics: Concepts and statistical models related to different areas of the professional duty of the cartographer.

*Environmental Impact Assessment: Study of the procedures for the environmental impact assessment and monitoring of its implementation.

*Project Evaluation: Stages in the formulation and preparation of general projects. -Fundamentals of economic evaluation of projects. -Control and coordination techniques of cartographic projects.

*Photogrammetry: Study of techniques and methodologies in the execution of chart or map *surveys through aerial or terrestrial photographs.

*Photo-interpretation: Conceptual and practical elements to recognize and classify the different elements which make up the natural and modified space through aerial photographs, so as to make a photo-reading and a photo-interpretation of the analyzed area.

*Geodesy: Mathematical science that determines the exact position of points on the surface of the Earth, the shape and magnitude of large areas of land where it is necessary to consider the curvature of the Earth.

*Geophysics: Science that is in charge of the study of Earth from the point of view of Physics. It studies its gravity, magnetism, tides, earthquakes, tsunamis, etc.

*Physical Geography: It studies the natural geographic space. -The terrain, its evolution and current dynamics. –The behavior of the different physical elements such as the atmosphere (meteorology, climatology); waters (hydrology, oceanography); rocks (geology); soil; vegetation.

*Human Geography: It studies the relationship between man and the environment, and includes the study of man’s use of the physical environment.

*Geomatics: Study of the earth’s surface through informatics (Automatic processing of information).

*Management: Make the inquiries and procedures to carry out an objective or project.

*Topographic Survey: It is to graph a place on paper, with all the surface accidents.

*Mathematics: Mathematics with emphasis on the geometrical area, such as: Representation on the Cartesian plane, advanced mathematics in the analysis of Curves in Space, Calculation of areas and volumes, among others.

*Methodology of Scientific Research: Principles of scientific research. -Steps and stages which must be contemplated in the development of a research project.

-Structuring of the projects in terms of the objectives and available resources.

- Application of this methodology to techniques of obtaining relevant information for the elaboration of different cartographic models of the territory.

*Representation models: A model is an analysis program of an area whether urban or rural, which allows reproducing the conditions of a certain phenomenon in it and make decisions to carry out modifications in its landscape.

The course of the study plan contemplates the study of specialized software in the elaboration of these representation models of territory.

*Perception: Study of the theoretical elements to understand what perception and color are and be able to use it in the cartographic representation.

*Remote Sensing: Remote sensing is the method that allows obtaining information regarding an object, surface or phenomenon of a geographic area from mobile platforms, such as a plane, spacecraft or artificial satellites.

These platforms contain sensors that capture radiation reflected by the lens, forming an image that must be interpreted by the cartographer in order to extract the information.

The course of the study plan contemplates the foundations of remote sensing; information from visible, infrared, and microwave sensors; Pattern recognition and interpretation techniques.

*Surveys: Technical report with economic valuation performed by the expert in the area.

*Digital Image Processing: Structures and digital processing techniques with the purpose of elaborating cartography in different subjects and extracting useful information for those in charge of the decision making.

*Projection: *Geographic Projection:

A geographic projection is a mathematical process which transforms the position of a target in the Earth’s surface (spherical surface) into a map (flat surface) in order to be located accurately.

*Thematic Symbols: Language of symbols for the representation of physical, human, economic or cultural characteristics related to geographic and spatial aspects.

*Geographic Information System (GIS):

A Geographic Information System is software design to receive, store, manipulate, analyze and display information with reference of its geographic location, with the purpose of solving complex problems of territorial planning and management.

The course covers the characteristics and application of GIS. -Its operation for the analysis and interpretation of the geographic space. –Programming language to be employed that is specific to GIS.

*Reproduction Techniques: Techniques and means for the printed illustration of charts and maps and reproduction of the original piece. –Photographic techniques, film handling and graphic reproduction systems.

* Color Theory and Application: Manipulation of color combining the harmony of aesthetic aspects.

*Types of Projections: There are three types of map projections: of equidistance, equivalence and isogony.

An equidistant projection happens when the proportionality of distances is maintained; when it is equivalent, the proportionality between the areas of the map and the corresponding ones of the terrestrial surface is conserved; and isogonic when there is correspondence between the angles of the map and those of the terrestrial surface. No map can bring together these three properties at the same time.

These cartographic representations can be done with computer programs termed Geographic Information System (GIS).

*Topography: Interpretation of the terrestrial surface from a geometrical point of view, determining the position of elements and existing phenomena in it, as also the relationship between them.

It is also part of the course the use of tools and instruments for the application of various measures and the further processing of information, with its geographical representation.

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