Geography


Career Objectives

To obtain a systematic and scientific record and study of the territory, spatial distribution of natural resources, of existing spatial phenomena and the reason why they happen; for an optimal exploitation and respect for diversity of existing ecosystems.


Professional Profile

-Professional who carries out a scientific and systematic research of the productive and social development of a geographic area.

For that, he is devoted to describe the Earth from different points of view: Physical aspects (soil, weather, etc) economic aspects (soil production), Human and Political aspects (of races, languages, institutions, the boundaries of peoples.

Geography is a Natural and Social Science, since its subject of study is the physical and social environment in which human life unfolds.

As natural science, it studies physical phenomena presented by the earth’s surface and the atmosphere; and as social science, it describes demographic, political and economic distribution of different societies of the world.

And eventually, it analyzes the reciprocal interrelations between physical, biological and human phenomena, such as the relation between soil formation, weather, plants and human aspects.

For instance: If the geographer studies malaria, he doesn’t consider the disease itself, but he looks for the causes and influence of the physical environment on human societies, that is, in this case it is linked to stagnant and warm waters.

Among physical elements there are:

General features of the relief, as the Plateau, the coasts or littorals, islands, etc, their location and geostrategic position.

-Variety of rocks (lithology) of the relief.

- The formation of the relief in relation to the main geological eras.

-Slopes and the main drainage basins.

-Regulation of the river courses: dammed water.

-Groundwater.

-The weather, its use and problems.

-Main plant species.

-Preservation and impact on the environment.

-Soil erosion and degradation.

-Pollution and forest fire.

-Biodiversity, etc.

Among human elements, he studies:

-Evolution and distribution of the population.

-Natural dynamics of the population:

Fertility, birth rate, marriage rate, mortality and natural growth

-Migration

-Socio-demographic structure of the population: age, gender, marital status, activity, education, etc.

Interrelations between physical and human elements:

-Agricultural structure: property regimes, possession and exploitation of land.

-Use and exploitation: crops, livestock and forest areas.

-Fishing; Fishing regions. Material and human resources: fleet, fishing gears and population. Species caught and size.

-The Law of the Sea and Fisheries Policy.

-Rural development programs.

-Space and exploitation of the agricultural and livestock, forestry and fisheries sector.

-Industrial spaces and activities.

-Factors of the industrial activity:

-Raw material, energy sources, capital, space, environment.

Transport and communications: basic elements of territorial and economic articulation.

-Transport systems

-Networks (roads and railways), port networks.

-People and merchandise transported.

-Revolution in Telecommunications.

-Transport, communications and environment: impact on the territory and society.

Trade and territory: Trade elements and factors.

Domestic trade: development, causes and characteristics.

-Domestic trade types.

Foreign Trade: importation and exportation features.

-Geography of Foreign Trade.

-Tourism and leisure

-Characterization and typology of tourism patterns.

-Main tourist areas.

-Meaning of tourism in economy and society.

-Tourism and environment, etc.

This professional carries out a methodological and systematic study of the description, interrelation and evolution of each of these aspects, in order to determine its behavior and predict changes.

The geographer develops an observing system which allows him to understand the culture and landscape in a different and deeper way.

He observes how the geographical space has been transformed and the environmental problems that this has brought.

How the man has modified the landscape or places where the construction of man has prevailed over the land and where the land is above the human construction.

How social, economic and political phenomena have influenced in the organization of the land space throughout history.

-He takes part in the search of solutions and socioeconomic planning of the country, according to the results of his feedback.

Geographers are required in the rural and urban planning and in decision making to solve specific problems of the community.

For instance:

In the world, there are large areas that are poorly exploited in geographical terms and also optimal areas for cultivation but they have been badly used to build cities on them, when it should have been a rural area.

There is also a great deal to be done with issue of natural disasters, whether for the design and construction of a road, a tunnel or a bridge, so you can avoid, for instance, a flood sweeping away bridges, roads or people, which is a potential risk.

There are things that cannot be avoided, but you can reduce the risk of almost any activity.


Specific tasks or activities carried out in the profession

-Analytical and statistical work of physical, economic, social phenomena and their close interconnection.

-The geographer interprets, in spatial-temporal coordinates, graphic, photographic and *cartographic systems.

-His tools are graphics, diagrams, maps, pictures (aerial photographs, satellite images, slides about landscapes, etc), statistic data and analysis of texts related to different aspects of Geography.

-He performs analysis and summary of statistical tables, commenting on their content and developing descriptive and explanatory synthetic indexes.

-He classifies and *typifies different geographical phenomena according to a diversity of criteria.

-In any geographical area, field work or geographical excursion is essential, an incomparable way to be in contact with the environment and analyze and identify everything about the field theoretically.

-The geographer also applies topography techniques, statistics and meteorology for his observations, providing essential data to set objectives and develop charts and statistical graphics that then correlate with various aspects of physical and social media.

-He evaluates the vulnerability or degree of deterioration of the environment, in the different natural and human elements.

-He understands territorial structures, their functioning, and evolution and consequently, he deduces their scientific explanation.

-He observes the protection of natural, cultural (architecture, urbanism, anthropology, etc.) and social heritage.

-He analyzes and takes a positive stance before the territorial distribution and behavior of the different elements and geographical factors that are linked to human activity:

-Population, settlement, resources, economic activities, environmental impact, observing their categories, the dynamics of the processes and the unequal distribution of the mentioned elements.

-He provides data and solutions that allow facing the various existing social, economic and cultural problems.

-He helps in the decision making of spatial planning, that according to the available information can determine types of stratums, sediments, fillings of basins, valleys or city maps and, therefore, determine the characteristics of the fill, which areas are removable or can cause slipping.

Specialties

Physical Geography: It considers physical geology, meteorology, climatology.

Human Geography: It considers demography (quantitative study of human population), political geography, economic geography, and human geography itself. (Distribution of population in the planet)


Occupational Field

-Fiscal and private institutions related to planning, protection of the environment, natural resource use, geodetic and photogrammetric measurement, demographic studies, human settlements (location of human populations), etc.

Such as:

-Ministry of Housing

-Ministry of Transport and Communications

-Ministry of Agriculture

-National Statistics Institute

-National Institute of Ecology

-Local governments

-Universities

-Non-governmental organizations

-Insurance companies

-Research Institutes

- Official, private and international bodies that are in charge of urban and rural planning

-Educational Institutions

-Own company, among others.


Estimated time of College years

4 to 5 years

The study program, whether semi-annual or annual and its exact length will depend on the institution that imparts it.


Main courses considered in the syllabus 

High schools subjects projected in the career

-Geography, Natural Science, Social Science, History.

Basic Training Courses

-Mathematics, Geometry, Physics, Chemistry, different English levels (depending on the study plan of the institution), Computer Science.

Introductory Science to the specialty

-Statistics (applied to Geography)

-Economics

Specialty Courses

-Epistemology, Geology, Cartography, Geography, History, Anthropology, Hydrology, Climatology, Economics, Oceanography, Cultural Geography, Economic Geography, Agricultural Geography, Biogeography, among others.


Vocation, Skills and Interests required in the candidate to this career 


Interests

-Taste for exploring and knowing different places and their people.

-Interest in the observation and scientific research of natural geographical phenomena and natural science.

-Social and productive interest.

-Interest in the development and use of quantitative methods.

-Taste for developing graphs and their interpretation.

-Taste for the use of equipment and computer.

-Interest in the preservation of the environment.


Skills

Analytic:

-Necessary in the use of sequences, classifications and detection of the existing relations in the study and understanding of something.

-The study that is made about a reality or situation, by distinguishing the facts, describing them and seeing the relation between them. Obtain conclusions and foresee consequences.

-Relate data and understand them coherently.

-Text interpretation.

-Fine motor skills: necessary for the write letters, mapping and in the use of instruments.

-Spatial Location: Necessary in the interpretation of letters, maps and aerial photographs.

-Synthesis capacity.

-Observation capacity.


Vocation

His service is expressed through promoting human development in accordance with its natural environment, for the sake of itself and natural life.

-Through knowing, analyzing and recording.

Or any specific dream or longing which feels involved or oriented towards this direction.


Candidate Personality

-Observant, methodological, detail-oriented.


Work Scope

The main places where the work is developed are: laboratories, offices, study centers and the field.


Related Careers

Geography (Civil Engineering) (adds the demand for construction technology, where mathematics and physics are stronger).

-Topography (with greater emphasis on geometry)

-Tourism (They have in common the taste for knowing different geographic places and their people, adding taste and appreciation for artistic and cultural aspects, besides having a commercial and administrative spirit).

-Geology (with greater emphasis on research of the origin of the planet and its physical and natural phenomena).


*Glossary of Terms

*Geodesy: Mathematical science that aims to determine the exact position of points on the earth’s surface, and the shape and magnitude of this surface or its larger areas.

*Photogrammetry: Procedure to obtain plans of large extensions of land by means of photographs.

*Demography: Statistical study of the population.

*Typify: Adjust several similar things to a common type or standard.

*Cartography: Science that studies the design of geographical maps.

*Topography: Art of describing and representing in detail the surface of a land.

*Epistemology: Philosophical subject area that studies the material principles of human knowledge.

In other words, logic investigates the coherence of thought, the method of independent thinking whether it is true or not, whereas epistemology seeks the truth of the knowledge obtained in relation to the object studied.

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