Marine Biology


Career Objectives

-The management and preservation of marine resources.


Professional Profile 

A professional dedicated to the study and preservation of marine life, both its biological elements, as well as its flora and fauna, as well as its elements of physical and chemical order of the aquatic environment.

His objective is the integral conservation of all the marine species.

He also focuses his study from the perspective of the marine resource, of what it is today as feeding source and what may become in the future, not only as a food resource but for other areas such as medicine, *biotechnology, *genetics and cosmetology. -For instance, the use of the vitreous humor of the eyes of certain fish in medicine, among many other applications, and those that can be carried out in the future.

The Marine Biologist can opt for a Master’s degree in Marine Biology.


Specific tasks or activities carried out in the profession

He analyzes the groups of animals and plants which live in the sea, to get to know where they live, what they eat, how they reproduce.

He studies species distribution, their abundance and *population structure regarding oceanographic factors, such as temperature, degree of salinity, amount of light, oxygenation, etc, of the ocean.

He studies and researches *taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary aspects of marine organisms and their interrelation with the water environment.

He maintains updated studies of changes in *biomass and biodiversity.

He carries out the study of a particular species, managing information about its *anatomy, *physiology, *ethology, abundance, distribution and migration; about its age, growth and feeding; about its predators, reproductive aspects, eggs and larvae, etc.

He evaluates *populations and suggests levels of sustainable usage of current and potential marine resources.

He proposes preservation measures for *biota and the aquatic environment.

He works in research laboratories of controlled environment for the production of microalgae, larvae and seeds of marine species of commercial interest.

He orients biological knowledge for the benefit of *aquaculture, genetic engineering, marine microbiology, coastal resources management and the preservation of the marine environment.

He integrates and leads multidisciplinary teams associated with Marine Sciences to confront problems linked to the exploitation of natural aquatic resources and the use of that environment.

He addresses issues related to the use of coastal edge and its pollution, effects and possible ways of solution.

He works with native species of the coast (*biota), valuing and disclosing the economic and ecological scope of hydrobiological resources.

He performs the ecological study of marine environments, whether sandy beaches, rocky coasts, planktonic life or the impact that society exerts on these ecosystems.

He does research to assess the main hydrobiological resources and incorporates alternatives of development and diversification to the entire national fishing sector.

He performs the environmental impact assessment in various government entities in terms of marine resource management, such as fishery closures or pollution.

He advises private companies on the *genetic and *physiological management of marine species in cultivation.

He works along with fishing engineers and aquaculture engineers generating technical arguments which allow the elaboration of measures and regulations for the various hydrobiological resources of the country, preventing that the current fishing areas are overexploited or the exploitation of species which their basic biology is unknown and hence, without regulation of it.

He advises companies in the creation of management standards, such as closure periods in order to protect the reproductive processes, restriction of fishing operations in specific areas and overall fishing quotas (permitted quantity of capture of a product) and closures of logs (restrictions on the number of vessels with fishing permits).

He performs Teaching and takes part in research projects.


Occupational Field

-Government agencies of Fisheries Development or Undersecretariat of Fishing.

-Consultancy companies about environment.

-Marine Research Center

-Productive companies in areas of marine biology, fishery, *aquaculture, food for aquatic organisms.

-Biotechnological Research Centers.

-Universities.


Estimated time of College years

5 years


Main courses considered in the syllabus 

Basic Training Courses

Mathematics (3 semesters)

Statistics

*Physics

*General Chemistry (2 semesters)

Professional Training Courses

*Cell Biology

*Biochemistry

*Microbiology Lab

*Marine Botany (2 semesters)

*Marine Zoology (2 semesters)

*Marine Microbiology

*Biology of Marine Organisms

*Physiology of Marine Organisms

*Population Dynamics

*Biological Oceanography

*Physical Oceanography

*Chemical Oceanography

*Genetics

*Marine Biogeography and Evolution

*Benthos

*Aquaculture

*Marine Ecology

*Marine Pollution

* Environmental Assessment of Ecological Systems

*Fishery Resource Assessment

*Marine Community Ecology

*Project Formulation and Management

Complementary Training Courses

Swimming

English (5 semesters)

Specialties

Zoology

Malacology (Study of mollusks)

Ichthyology (Study of fish)

Herpetology (Study of Amphibians)

Mammalogy (Study of Mammals)

Botany

Phycology (Study of Algae)

Pollution


Vocation, Skills and Interests required in the candidate to this career


Interests

-Research of the natural marine world.

-Biological curiosity for the marine flora and fauna.

-Appraisal for Science

-Laboratory work in microbiology

-Motivation by cultivating and managing of aquariums.

-Interest in the sea and marine resources.


Skills

-Naturalist Intelligence, that is, the ability to perceive, observe and identify differences and similarities among members of a species or of different kinds, as well as the existing relations between them.

-Analysis Capacity.

-Understanding of Mathematics and Chemistry.

-Fine motor ability.

-Planning and organizing skills in the selection, arrangement, classification and recognition of development sequences of a work.


Vocation

-For the defense and protection of wildlife and the environment, especially in the marine area.

Or any specific dream or longing which feels involved or oriented towards this global vocation.


Candidate Personality

Organized

Methodical

Patient

Punctilious


Work Scope

His work is both on-site (sea) and in research laboratories.


Related Careers

-Oceanography, Aquacultural Engineering, Fisheries Engineering, Biotechnology, Aquaculture Technology.


*Glossary of Terms

*Aquaculture: Technique of the cultivation of plant and animal aquatic species.

*Aquaculture (Course): Biological, technological and economic factors connected with the intensive and extensive cultivation of fish, mollusks, crustaceans and algae.

*Anatomy: Science that studies the body shape and its constituent organs.

*Benthos: Community of organisms that inhabit the seabed.

*Benthos (Course): Characteristics of the seabed’s surface, marine morphology, organisms and communities of flora and fauna of the seafloor, classification according to depth and the nature of the bottom.

*Cell Biology (Course): Internal structure of the cell, its chemical components, its *molecular genetics.

*Biology of Marine Organisms: Reproductive cycles and embryonic development of marine organisms.

-Biology of Birds and Marine Mammals.

-Organ systems of a bird, classifications and nature of sea birds.

-Organ systems of a mammal, classification and nature of marine mammals.

-Distribution and life cycles of birds and mammals.

*Biomass: Total matter of living beings in a particular location, expressed in weight per unit area or volume.

*Biochemistry (Course): Structure of biomolecules and the chemical reactions that are produced inside the cells: Metabolism (way in which the organism transforms food into energy and then suppresses waste products) of carbohydrates (sugar), lipids (fats), proteins and nucleic acids. (Biomolecules which are present in every cell and constitute the material base of the inheritance that is transmitted from one generation to another).

*Biota: Set of flora and fauna of a specific locality.

*Biotechnology: Technology applied to biological processes.

*Marine Botany (Course): Classification of aquatic plants and study of their ecology; reproductive aspects and of cell organization of seaweeds.

*Marine Pollution (Course): Known types and sources of pollution. Discharge of sewage water. -Direct and indirect discharges of industrial waste or energy to the marine environment.

-Harmful effect in the living resources and marine activities.

-Dumping of residues and accidental discharges.

-Oil spills. –Chemical accidents.

-Control techniques, monitoring and assessment of spills.

*Population Dynamics (Course): Study of the changes biological populations undergo in terms of size, physical dimensions of their members, age and sex structure, as well as the factors that cause those changes and the mechanisms by which they occur.

*Marine Community Ecology (Course): Structure of Communities.

-Distribution of the communities in the sundry ecosystems, evolution of populations, Plankton ecology.

-Population and benthic communities (from seabed) and their interrelations with the rest of the marine ecosystems.

*Population Structure: It is the classification of the components of a determined population attending to different variables. For instance: the classification of the population according to age and sex, among many other factors.

*Ethology: Science which studies the behavior of animals; Disease or pathology of the behavior of animals.

*Environmental Assessment of Ecological Systems (Course):

-Environmental legislation.

-The Environment law and its regulations.

-Environment Quality Standards and Emission standards.

-Environmental Impact Assessment.

*Fishery Resource Assessment (Course): Indirect or direct assessment methods of resources and fisheries, biomasses, total allowable catches, maximum sustainable yields, fishery administration and fishery management plans.

*Marine Biogeography and Evolution (Course): Physical, chemical and biological evolution. Biodiversity spatial patterns, study of the distribution of organisms and variations in number and type. -Comparative observation with scales of space and time.

*Physics (Course): Foundations and principles of Physics. -Kinematics (study of the motion of bodies), gravity, electricity and magnetism.

-Analysis of wave theories from a basic perspective and focused preferably on wave propagation in liquids, particularly, in water.

*Physiological: *Physiology: Branch of biology which studies the functions of the parts and organs of living beings.

*Physiology of Marine Organisms (Course): The functioning of plant and animal organisms in aquatic environments. –Cellular physiology.

*Project Formulation and Management (Course): Introduction to the public project system. -Types of projects and competitive funds.

-Phases of identification of a project, use of participatory methodologies for diagnosis.

-Project management and logical framework.

*Genetics: Biological processes involved in the transmission and expression of hereditary traits in living beings.

*Genetics (Course): Genetics concepts, population genetics (groups of individuals of the same species) and molecular genetics. Technologies intended for the genetic improvement of aquaculture species.

*Microbiology Laboratory (Course): Main structural characteristics of microorganisms: fungi, bacteria and virus. -Study of marine microorganisms.

-Identification of bacteria and fungi.

*Marine Microbiology (Course): Study of the structure and life of microorganisms that inhabit the seas and their relation with the rest of animals and plants which share the marine habitat with them.

*Biological Oceanography (Course): Spatial distribution of species and hydrobiological resources (Elements of flora and fauna of sea waters, lakes and rivers); aquatic ecology; habitat loss and species in an environmental context; population decrease and extinction; invasion and introduction of species; disturbances and catastrophes. -Design of protected areas. -Fishery and aquaculture farming.

*Physical Oceanography (Course): Origin of oceans. Plate tectonics (Folding and breaks which modify the earth’s crust): theory and proofs, geology (study of the physical characteristics of the planet) continental and marine.

-Sea areas. Marine sediments: Classification and distribution. Properties of sea water: temperature, salinity, density. -Interaction ocean-atmosphere.

-Ocean circulation. Waves: characteristics and classification.

-Tides. Ocean currents, dynamics (process and change) of beaches, of sea currents, waves and tides.

*Chemical Oceanography (Course): Composition, entry and distribution of chemical components of sea water and its interrelation with the biota, sediments and the atmosphere.

*Populations: Set of organisms or individuals which coexist in the same space and time, which share certain biological properties.

*General Chemistry (Course): Concepts of measurements, nomenclature (rules and standards to name all those combinations which occur between elements and chemical compounds), stoichiometry (study of proportions of matter involved in a chemical reaction), study of gases, properties of aqueous solutions.

*Taxonomic: Taxonomy: It is the science of classification.

*Marine Zoology (Course): Characteristics which encompass the ocean inhabitants. -Number of existing species in the seas and their classification. -Details of the marine animal species. –Comparison of the anatomy of bodies, seeing similarities and differences.

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