Landscape Architecture


Career Objectives

Creating an aesthetic, functional habitat and in harmony with nature.


 Professional Profile

-Professional devoted to design and construction of outdoor spaces in natural, rural and urban areas, with aesthetic, functional and respectful criteria with the environment.


Specific tasks or activities carried out in the profession 

In cities, he designs and conducts the construction of:

-Public areas such as streets, squares and parks.

-Botanic gardens, zoos and open-air museums.

-Sports zones.

-Open spaces for tourism development.

-Archaeological parks and Cultural Heritage areas.

-Industrial parks.

*Breakwaters.

-Cycling infrastructures.

-Urban plots.

-Family gardens, residential community gardens, *sensory gardens, *theme gardens.

-Open spaces for enterprises or institutions.

-Outdoor spaces for hotels, resorts and golf courses.

-Design and construction of terraces, balconies, pergolas, extensive green roofs for aesthetics in buildings, vertical and green walls.

-Aquascaping, rustic and oriental designs, etc.

In the natural environment, he makes the design of:

-National Parks and Biosphere reserves.

-Landscapes for communication paths such as roads, ports, promenades.

-Agricultural Parks.

-Hiking routes.

-Camping and recreational areas.

-Ecotourism.

Etc.

Landscape Architecture Phases:

Phase of Study, Diagnosis and Assessment of the territory or area.

He recognizes the physical properties of the area or territory, and the context within which it is framed, in order to define the types and forms of intervention that will be made in it.

He interprets and studies topographical plans of the place, which will be essential for the overall design of the whole landscape work, since it allows him to know the possible accesses to the land, the constructions of its surroundings, the existence of pipes, power lines and all the references that are useful to be respected or modified in terms of the project that is going to be designed.

He performs the study of the land surface in order to realize earthworks to create the needed slopes for the water evacuation, drains, etc., or removing or mitigating the already existing ones if they were not necessary.

Anyway, slopes naturally can always be elements which contribute to the setting and aesthetic design of the place.

He performs the study of soil texture and structure, as well as a chemical analysis of this one in order to make the needed improvements of the composition of land.

He performs study of the weather of the zone and the particular situation of the land to take steps in terms of the type of plants to use. For instance: In the event of a proximity to the sea, you must keep in mind the winds loaded with salt; or the presence of frost periods to take precautions of shelter and not to use delicate species; or the existence of extreme temperatures in summer or minimum ones in winter to select the plants which resist or tolerate them.

Design Phase

He designs landscape architecture projects responding to the social and environmental needs, consistent with a determined time and place, linking the natural, artificial and cultural environment of outdoor areas. In this:

He interprets ideas and concepts in order to offer plastic and aesthetic solutions to the project requirements.

He carries out space analysis and planning.

He makes design consistent with the objectives of specific use of the area, generating a balance between the needs of habitability, communication and recreation.

He combines every element and factor logically, creating the needed effect to give each landscape its own theme and style.

He implements Landscape Design basic principles in order to achieve harmony among colors, heights and foliage.

He integrates the landscape scattering the limits between artificial and natural elements, looking for a harmonious visual relationship between them.

He ensures that the design is related to the original attributes of the territory and also with the culture in order to contribute to the revaluation and interpretation of cultural and natural heritage of the area and the region.

He makes the most of each opportunity that could exist to place the visitor in direct contact with nature.

He designs areas which invite to rest, recreation, contemplation and stimulation of senses.

He integrates the landscape of the place with its surroundings as a whole, proposing constructions which structure, materials and scenery do not contravene the setting.

He contributes values to the natural environment by taking advantage and enhancing the resources and present elements of the place, such as the water, air, sound, scents, ground, plants and natural materials.

He underpins and decides the realization of a landscape architecture.

He makes *sketches in which he introduces corrections and/or changes to the design.

He prepares general and detailed plans of the design with its specifications; these include: access to the site, walks, irrigation network, electrical grid, gardens and civil work such as pergolas, play areas, viewpoints, structures or works of art to include in the landscape such as fountains, statues, garden furniture, flowerpots, outdoor accessories, etc.

For the making of plans, he handles conventional, digital and mixed illustration methods.

Construction Phase

He administers and organizes the project implementation; In that:

He selects the contractors for the construction phase.

He monitors the place and the construction of the work in general, in order to make sure it is being built according to the plan.

He describes and sets rules about the way of performing works.

He establishes and oversees the special specifications of the project, such as:

-The type and quality of the various materials (stone, concrete, wood, glass, metal, etc) to be used in the work.

-The selection of the plant species adapted to the characteristics of soil, the preparation of the ground for the plantation and the objects included in the project.

He oversees that the work is executed according to:

-Contract Specifications

-Construction Costs

-Deadlines

-Relevant Legislation

Environment Care

He evaluates the impact of possible interventions on natural heritage.

He keeps an eye on landscape rights, taking care of areas of archaeological potential, historic environments and buildings or of cultural interest in order to be protected, restored and/or reused.

Designs must respect the movement patterns and the habitats of wildlife.

He respects the areas with significant vegetation or native trees in the site, using native species or more suitable ones for garden design, *hedges, environment divisions, etc. and avoiding to the maximum that structures and facilities pull the present ecosystems apart, in order to promote the conservation and/or restoration of natural biodiversity.

He works along with multidisciplinary teams in the planning and management of rural and urban soil, providing ideas, points of view and creativity in the organization of space and how to address the sustainable growth of a landscape.

He takes part in the first phases of a project, giving advice in studies of Impact on the Landscape, of:

-Projects to preserve natural and protected areas.

-Housing, industrial parks and business developments areas.

-Highways, transport structures and bridges.

-Urban renewal projects.

-Reservoirs, dams, power plants, industrial projects.

-Coastal development and at sea, etc.

He addresses the maintenance, handling and management of parks, gardens, historic gardens; in tree planting and ornamental plants, care of the ground, means of irrigation, *pruning, etc.

He advises in the maintenance, development, care and preservation of landscapes and natural green areas in the long run.

He performs the Landscape Restoration, retrieving and protecting the natural and urban landscape, such as: heritage sites and wildlife sanctuaries, restoration of degraded sites such as mines and landfills, regeneration of natural areas impacted by natural disasters. -Revitalization of unlit or depressed urban areas.

He delivers written reports of policies and urban and rural strategies.


Occupational Field

-Construction Companies.

-Architectural Offices.

-Ministry of Public Works.

- Ministry of Housing and Urban Development.

-Municipalities in their departments of design, cleaning and adornment.

-Private companies of landscape design and green areas maintenance.

-Environmental Conservation Organizations.

-Governmental institutions associated to environmental control and urban, rural and natural landscape design.

-National Parks.

-Plant nurseries.

-As independent professionals in advisory services within their field.


Estimated time of College years:

4 to 5 years

Main courses considered in the curriculum.

Basic Training Courses

*Applying Mathematics to Design

Professional Training Courses

*History of Landscape Architecture

*Psychology in Landscape Design

*Spatial Composition and Graphic Expression (2 semesters)

*Landscape Design (2 semesters)

*Botany

*Soil Management

*Climatology

*Structural Systems

*Technical Drawing

*Construction Techniques and Materials

*Landscape Ecology

*Landscape Assessment

*Urbanism

*Design Workshop (2 semesters)

Complementary Training Courses

*Basics of Topography

*Construction Management

Specialties

Landscape Assessment

Landscape Planning

Landscape Design

Landscape Implementation

Garden Design


Vocation, Skills and Interests required in the candidate to this career


Interests

-Frequent observer of the aesthetic and sensory setting. (Scents, touch, color, etc).

-Search for the creative.

-Motivation for drawing.

-Attraction to open spaces and in contact with nature.

-Appreciation for city’s aesthetics and functionality.

-Observer of the daily functionality needs of people.

-Sense of perfection and care with manual work.

-Penchant for the use of technology.

-Valuation for the environment preservation.

-Curiosity for plants, both for their aesthetic and their harvesting, such as preparing the soil, watering and pruning.

-Interest in applying his knowledge.

-Motivation to do and build.

-Motivation for project planning and implementation.

-Motivation to innovate in the aesthetic.


Skills

-Imaginative of the visual type.

-Ability to perceive shapes, colors, textures, illumination.

-Ability to appreciate volumes and spaces and the theme of proportions.

-Easiness to express graphically.

-Creative in plastic expression.

-Manual dexterity.

-Ability of activity planning and organization.


Vocation

For delivering aesthetics and welfare to people’s life, improving their quality of life.

Or any specific dream or longing which feels involved or oriented towards this direction.


Candidate Personality

•Observer

•Punctilious

•Sense of perfection and care with manual work.

•Organized in his work.

•Availability to work in teams.


Work Scope

-In office and on-site, both in city and rural and natural areas.


Related Careers

-Architecture, Bachelor’s degree in Design, Agricultural Technician.


*Glossary of Terms

*Construction Management:

Administrative processes needed for the management of a project, such as laws, regulations and standards that are relevant for the landscape architecture practice. Organization, programming and control in the realization of a landscape work according to its specifications, yields and budget costs.

*Sprinkling: Sprinkler Irrigation: Irrigation method in which water reaches out to plants in form of located “rain”.

*Sketch: It is an outline or draft of an idea made through a drawing in a schematic form, without worrying about details or terminations.

*Botany and *Horticulture:

*Plant Taxonomy

-Forms and functions of the different vegetables and their relation with the environment.

-Sowing and plant transplanting.

-Causes of plagues, diseases and weeds that affect plant life.

-Prevention, control and eradication of plagues.

-Main signs of excess or lack of nutrients.

-Election of plants, species and varieties to be used in a given soil.

-Main groups of *horticultural importance and their utility in landscape architecture.

-Reproduction and cultivation methods of ornamental plants which are used in landscape architecture.

-Horticulture in pots.

-Principles about greenhouse construction.

*Climatology: Elements which constitute a climate and the factors which determine it. -Relation between weather and vegetation types.

*Spatial Composition and Graphic Expression:

*Color Theory

*Design Theory

-Space Shaping

-Graphic language of representation and expression of landscape architecture.

*Polychromatic representation techniques.

-Computational methods for drawing and designing.

-Development of scale models and study *models.

-Representation methods in two and three dimensions in the realization and presentation of architectural projects.

*Cutaway: It is as if the construction or piece had been cut by a plan. Removing the upper part, everything that is below that cut is visible. This is to represent the internal components of a piece that are not possible to see from its exterior area.

*Cube Measure: It determines the body’s capacity or volume knowing its dimensions and applying the corresponding geometric formulas.

For example: the amount of soil to be removed in an excavation, or determine the cubic meters of elements to be used such as wood, iron, etc.

*Technical Drawing: Basics of technical drawing for the representation of *landscape plans.

-Use of projections and *scale work to go from imagination to the sketch and then to the obtainment of views: upper view, front view, side views, back view, as also sections and *cutaways, which will help to form the spaces.

-Standards, conventionalisms and techniques for drawing under the landscape architecture approach, for the project presentation.

-Among others.

*Landscape Design: Space analysis, considering human needs and environmental aspects.

-Relation of the physical landscape with the weather, culture and arts.

-Aesthetics of the area, of its volumes and visual quality.

-Landscape topography taken as design elements (for example unevenness of the area, river basins, a valley, a canyon, etc).

-Composition of spaces using elements such as water and vegetation mass.

-Insertion of architectural and urbanism objects in the landscape (such as columns, walls, works of art, furniture, etc.)

-Ornamental plants as elements of space design.

-Among others.

*Landscape Ecology: Elements which compound an ecosystem and their interrelations.

-Factors which intervene in the environmental issues of landscape design.

-Conservation and reinforcement of natural ecosystems.

-Legislation and Environmental Management.

*Scale: *Scale Drawing: Drawing which shows an object which size has been reduced or increased in relation to reality. This relation is called “scale”. -For example a “1.10” scale, means that a dimension “1” of the drawing will have a dimension “10” in reality.

*Landscape Assessment:

-Environmental Impact Assessment.

-Degradation and impact levels of human activity in environment’s healthiness and pollution.

-Suitability of the area for specific programs and activities.

-Policies for restoration and conservation of animal and plant diversity, for the structure and function of altered ecosystems.

*Basics of Topography: Methods, use and management of basic equipment in the development of simple *topographic surveys.

-Analysis of the terrain configuration.

-*Topographical plans interpretation and execution.

-Map analysis and interpreting.

-Use of *Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in order to develop project analysis.

*Geometry: Science which studies shapes in their three dimensions; line, surface and volume.

*Analytic Geometry: It studies the representation of geometry through algebraic equations. -For example, the algebraic equation for a Line, Circle, Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola, etc; as well as the graphic representation of Functions (or mathematical expressions).

-Applications of these topics in design, in order to describe shapes and spatial relations in geometric terms as well as finding their corresponding mathematical expressions or models which represent them.

*Descriptive Geometry: It studies the bodies in space through their projections on certain plans, for their application in the representation of volumes in two or three dimensions. -The development of the abilities of perception, volumetric/spatial analysis.

-Development methods applied in volume construction (in drawing and model). -The determination of shades which produce volumes through natural and artificial light. -Practice of the fundamental principles of *perspective.

*History of Landscape Architecture: Elements which intervene in the development of cultures.

-The environment and its influence in the forming of culture.

-Historic development of landscape architecture from the first signs of prehistoric man until the end of the Byzantine Empire.

*Horticultural: Cultivation in vegetable gardens.

*Sensory Gardens: Gardens which stimulate senses with sound, movement, color, fragrances, temperature, textures, etc, in order to be enjoyed by children with attention deficit, cognitive impairment, emotional difficulties and autism.

*Theme Gardens: Gardens with attractions, leisure, entertainment, educational and cultural areas, etc, inspired around a story line. For example: Mining Park, Water Park, Historical Park, etc.

*Topographic Survey: Graphic representation of a place in paper, with all the landforms.

*Breakwaters: Coastal edges or river banks.

*Soil Management:

-Soil characteristics

-Soil classification

-Causes which produce Erosion

-Solutions for the soil management and recovery.

-Main soil mixtures, their properties and use according to the type of plants.

-Rational and efficient use of water.

-Methods of *Sprinkling, micro-spray and drip irrigation.

-Materials and procedures for the improvement and preparation of soil as vegetation substrate.

*Model: *3D Model: Computational model of a work in three dimensions, which allows to have different *perspectives and a virtual tour of its internal and external parts. It is used during the stages of budgeting, organization and work construction.

*Applying Mathematics to Design:

-Ratio and Proportions. -Foundations of Algebra.*Geometry, *Descriptive Geometry, *Analytic Geometry, *Trigonometry.

*Construction Techniques and Materials:

-Materials of Landscape Architecture.

-Landscape Architecture Structures.

Landscape construction methods, such as:

-Techniques, methods and equipment used to carry out the modification of the original topography of a terrain.

*Cube Measure

-Creation of forms and generation of containers for water bodies.

-Technology to achieve the stabilization of scree (Inclined flat area like the wall slopes or hill slopes, etc).

-Transportation of water through different channels such as pipelines, ditches, etc.

-Behavior of water in different management conditions.

-Among others.

*Perspective: Object seen aloof from a determined location.

*Topographical Plan: It is a *scale representation of the relief of a land.

*Pruning: Trimming of trees and bushes adequately in order to preserve their growth and development.

*Psychology in Landscape Design:

-Importance of psychology in the design process.

-Interrelation between scenarios and users’ behavior in open spaces.

-Identifying and interpreting of psychological elements and factors which intervene in the conformation and use of outdoor spaces to be able to develop proposals.

*Polychromatic Representation: Representation of color (multiple colors).

*Hedge: Rows of arranged trees and bushes which form a fence or wall which sets limits or separation of plots.

*Geographic Information System (GIS): Software which provides information for the analysis and interpretation of the geographical space.

*Structural Systems:

-Structures function

-Structural forms employed efficiently in the solution of problems and particular architectural needs.

-Most appropriate materials for the construction of a structural form.

-Characteristics of the aesthetic and dynamic actions that sway the structures and the effect produced in them.

-Among others.

*Design Workshop:

-Management of design elements in outdoor space.

-Integration of concepts of form, function and meaning in the development of a project.

-Creation of a landscaping concept and its implementation to design.

-Implementation of design elements in the solution of a specific space problem.

-Implementation of graphic representation methods for the presentation of a project.

-Design of diverse public spaces of urban structure, integrating both natural and artificial elements.

*Plant Taxonomy: Plants classification.

*Color Theory: Ground rules in color mixing in order to achieve the desired effect by combining colors.

*Design Theory:

-It considers the knowledge of design bases; such as: balance (color balance);

Contrast (variety); emphasis; rhythm (combination and harmonious succession of shapes which includes both empty and occupied spaces; and unity (Composition of interrelated elements which produce unity).

*Topography: Graphic representation of a terrain in the form of a map, which shows the relief of its surface.

*Trigonometry: Component of mathematics which aims to calculate the elements of a triangle, relating its sides with its angles, both triangles in plans and triangles in three dimensions.

*Urbanism:

-Elements which conform a city, their relationships and functioning.

-Types of public spaces and their characteristics regarding their functions, size and location in the urban space.

-Urban design and its relation with landscape architecture.

-Physical and artificial elements which intervene in urban design.

-Factors which deteriorate the physical status of the city and its context, affecting the landscape and environment quality and the welfare of the rural and urban population.

-Transformation of the natural landscape into urban landscape.

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